Based on the density of population, development, amenities, employment opportunities, education, etc. human settlement is majorly divided into two categories i.e. Urban and Rural. People often juxtapose these two types of human settlement, but they are different. Urban refers to a human settlement where the rate of urbanisation and industrialisation is high. On the other hand, in a rural settlement, is one where the rate of urbanisation is quite slow. In this article, you will find the important differences between urban and rural. Have a look.
Content: Urban Vs Rural
|Basis for Comparison||Urban||Rural|
|Meaning||A settlement where the population is very high and has the features of a built environment, is known as urban.||An area located in the outskirts, is known as rural.|
|Includes||Cities and towns||Villages and hamlet|
|Life||Fast and complicated||Simple and relaxed|
|Environment||Greater isolation from nature.||Direct contact with nature.|
|Associated with||Non-agricultural work, i.e. trade, commerce or provision of services.||Agriculture and livestock.|
|Population size||Densely populated||Sparsely populated|
|Development||Planned settlement exists in urban areas, that are developed according to the process of urbanization and industrialization.||Developed randomly, based on availability of natural vegetation and fauna in the area.|
|Social mobility||Highly intensive||Less intensive|
|Division of labor||Always present at the time of job allotment.||No such division.|
Definition of Urban
The term urban simply refers to the region or area which is densely populated and possess the characteristics of the man-made surroundings. The people residing in such area, are engaged in trade, commerce or services. In this settlement, there is high scale industrialisation that results in better employment opportunities. The Urban settlement is not confined to the cities only, but towns and suburbs (suburban areas) are also included in it.
There are many advantages of life in urban areas like easy access to various amenities, better transportation facilities, entertainment and education options, health facilities. Although it suffers certain drawbacks like pollution, caused due to large scale industrialisation and means of transportation like buses, trains, cars and so on, leading to increasing in health problems in the people living in that area.
Definition of Rural
We define the term ‘rural’ as a region located on the outskirts. It refers to a small settlement, which is outside the boundaries of a city, commercial or industrial area. It may include, countryside areas, villages or hamlets, where there are natural vegetation and open spaces. There is a low density of population in such area. The primary source of income of the residents is agriculture and animal husbandry. Cottage Industries also form a chief source of income here.
In India, a town whose population is below 15000 is considered as rural, as per the planning commission. Gram Panchayat is responsible for looking after such areas. Further, there is no municipal board, in the villages and maximum percentage of the male population are engaged in agriculture and related activities.
Key Differences Between Urban and Rural
The fundamental differences between urban and rural are discussed in the following points:
- A settlement where the population is very high and has the features of a built environment (an environment that provides basic facilities for human activity), is known as urban. Rural is the geographical region located in the outer parts of the cities or towns.
- The life in urban areas is fast and complicated, whereas rural life is simple and relaxed.
- The Urban settlement includes cities and towns. On the other hand, the rural settlement includes villages and hamlets.
- There is greater isolation from nature in urban areas, due to the existence of the built environment. Conversely, rural areas are in direct contact with nature, as natural elements influence them.
- Urban people are engaged in non-agricultural work, i.e. trade, commerce or service industry. In contrast, the primary occupation of rural people is agriculture and animal husbandry.
- Population wise, urban areas are densely populated, which is based on the urbanisation, i.e. the higher the urbanisation, the higher is the population. On the contrary, the rural population is sparse, which has an inverse relationship with agriculturism.
- Urban areas are developed in a planned and systematic way, according to the process of urbanisation and industrialisation. Development in rural areas is seldom, based on the availability of natural vegetation and fauna in the region.
- When it comes to social mobilisation, urban people are highly intensive as they change their occupation or residence frequently in search of better opportunities. However, in rural areas occupational or territorial mobility of the people is relatively less intensive.
- Division of labour and specialisation is always present in the urban settlement at the time of job allotment. As opposed to rural areas, there is no division of labour.
So, with the given discussion, it is easily understood that these two human settlements are very different, regarding the density of human structures and the residents of that area. The standard of living in urban areas is higher in comparison to the rural areas. At present, the maximum part of the total population resides in urban areas, as well as the total land area occupied by the urban region is greater than the rural areas.