Time study is all about determining the ideal time taken in the performance of a well-defined job. On the other hand, Motion study is the analysis of human work, to find out the best method of doing it which involves least efforts.
Fredrick Winslow Taylor, an Americal Mechanical Engineer, who is known as the Father of Scientific Management for his contribution in the improvement of industrial efficiency. Scientific Management implies the application of modern scientific methods in the study and analysis of the problems encountered by the management. Time and Motion Study are the two techniques of Scientific Management.
What is Work-Study?
Work-Study covers all those techniques, method study and work measurement, which analyzes and assesses human work, in all aspects. It is a means of improving the productivity of the company wherein non-value adding operations are eliminated by carefully observing them.
Motion study is a part of Method study, whereas time study is a part of work measurement.
Content: Time Study Vs Motion Study
|Basis for Comparison||Time Study||Motion Study|
|Meaning||Time study is one of the techniques of scientific management which involves observation and recording of the time taken in performing a particular task.||Motion study involves the observation of the movement of men, machine, materials and supplies, to find out the wasteful actions and eliminate them.|
|Involves||Tracking of the time consumed in carrying each part of the operation.||Ascertainment of total movements of workers while performing a task.|
|Purpose||To identify the standard time required to perform a task.||To reduce wastage of time and energy in unnecessary movements.|
|Tools used||Stopwatch||Surveillance Camera|
|Focuses on||Increase in productivity of labour.||Minimization of movement of workers.|
|Objective||To determine a fair day's work.||To find out the best method of doing a job.|
Definition of Time Study
Time study can be understood as the systematic process of deeply analysing and evaluating human work with the help of a time-measuring device, so as to find out the ideal time needed for finishing each element of the industrial activity.
It aims at fixing a standard time for a competent worker, to effectively complete the task assigned under specific circumstances at a fixed level of performance. And to do so, a stopwatch or other time device is used to measure the time consumed.
Thereafter, the standard time for the entire task is determined by taking multiple readings, in which the task should be finished. For this purpose, a well-qualified and experienced practitioner is required who watches and observes the work, note down the readings and concurrently analyses the speed of work.
Volume and frequency of the task, cycle time of operation and time measurement cost acts as a basis in this study. It aims at identifying the number of workers to be employed to undertake the task or activity. As well as the study is helpful in implementing the appropriate incentives scheme. It is important for the planning and controlling of operations.
Definition of Motion Study
This concept is introduced by FW Taylor and his associate Frank Gailberth. Motion Study as the name itself indicates is the critical observation of the movements of the workers such as lifting, picking, placing objects, sitting and changing positions, which are carried out in the course of doing a task.
It aims at selecting the best method/technique of carrying out any activity which involves the least movement and which helps in minimizing the efforts. It identifies motions which are productive, unproductive and incidental.
For this purpose, the existing or proposed ways of performing the task are recorded and analyzed carefully, in order to develop and implement an easier and effective method, which ultimately results in a reduction of cost. This is because the reduction in movement is concerned with the elimination of the unnecessary and unproductive movements, so as to take as less time as possible, in the completion of the job efficiently.
Key Differences Between Time and Motion Study
The points given below are substantial so far as the difference between time and motion study is concerned:
- Time study is a proven method of work measurement which sets a reasonable time for carrying out a particular task. On the other hand, motion study is a method of recording and analysing body movements, while the performance of a task, to develop a technique which excludes wasteful motions.
- Time study involves tracking of the time spent in performing each and every activity, whereas motion study involves the determination of all the movements or say physical efforts made by the workers while performing the task.
- Time study is performed to identify the standard time required in completing the task. As against, motion study aims at reducing wastage of time and energy in unnecessary movements.
- Time measuring devices such as a decimal minute stopwatch or computer-assisted electronic stopwatch is used to conduct a time study. On the contrary, video recorder or surveillance camera are the devices used to undertake motion study.
- Time study tends to increase labour productivity and efficiency. In contrast, motion study often helps in reducing the efforts or movements of the labours.
- Time Study is performed with the aim of ascertaining fair day’s work. On the flip side, motion study is conducted to develop a new technique for improving work methods.
Time and motion study is conducted to evaluate the industrial performance, by observing the time taken during various motions of a task or activity. These studies are tried and tested, and so they are reliable. It helps in the reduction and controlling costs, improving working conditions and implementing a suitable incentive scheme for the workers.
When it comes to suitability, time study is not suitable for workers where the jobs are of specialised nature as well as quality is the main consideration. But, there is no such limitation in the case of motion study as it is suitable for all types of job.