Job Analysis and Job Evaluation are the two important functions of Human Resource Management to know the characteristics of a particular position. Both the tasks are performed by an expert, to provide pertinent information about the two. Job Analysis is a process which determines job requirements while Job Evaluation ascertains the value of a job in relation to other jobs.
Job Analysis is performed with an objective of obtaining relevant facts and details related to the job. On the flip side, Job Evaluation aims at systematically assessing the various job, in order to identify their respective worth in the organization. Evaluation of job is based on the job content and position as per their performance.
They are many times juxtaposed with each other, although they are completely different. In this article, you will find the difference between Job Analysis and Job Evaluation, in tabular form.
Content: Job Analysis Vs Job Evaluation
|Basis for Comparison||Job Analysis||Job Evaluation|
|Meaning||Job Analysis is a careful study of each and every aspect of a particular job.||Job Evaluation is an attempt of assessing the relative utility of a particular job in an organization.|
|Nature of Process||Comprehensive||Comparative|
|Objective||To develop the present methods and techniques of doing a job.||To determine a fair wage of a job.|
|Techniques||Questionnaire, Checklist, Interview, Surveys etc.||Non-Analytical system and Analytical system.|
|Advantage||Recruitment & Selection, Performance Appraisal, Compensation etc.||Helps in removing inequalities in the wage system, making a comparative analysis of each job etc.|
Definition of Job Analysis
The term Job Analysis refers to a very deep examination conducted in an organized way, to collect information about a particular job. It is a process that aims at exploring information regarding the nature and major requirements of a specific job through observation, research and, study. The job analysis gives an answer to three major questions which are:
- What are the tasks performed by the job?
- How they are performed?
- What are the qualities required, in the effective performance of the job?
It determines the working conditions, tasks, responsibilities, duties, authorities, skills and abilities of the concerned job.
Job Description is the output of Job Analysis, which is in writing and helps in the preparation of Job Specification, to tally the employee specification with respect to the job. The techniques used in job analysis are Open-ended Questionnaire, Checklist, Interview of incumbents and supervisors, Surveys, Critical Incident, etc.
Definition of Job Evaluation
Job Evaluation is an objective and logical process, which determines the comparative usefulness of each and every job of the organization. The basic purpose of job evaluation is to find out an appropriate base for salary, to remove the disparities in the wage system and to implement a consistent and a justified wage differential in the organization.
There are certain pre-requisites of the job evaluation like:
- It rates the job, not the job holder.
- The criteria selected for rating should be easily explainable.
- It criteria should cover major aspects of every job to avoid clashing.
- Participation of foreman in rating the job.
- Points are only required to be discussed with the foreman, any discussion regarding money should be avoided.
Job evaluation may help in setting a uniform and rational wage structure in the industry, which will help in eliminating various shortcomings of the wage management and administration in the organization like deciding the wage rate on the basis of seniority and completely ignoring merit, an increment in the salary of the persons who does not justify it, inequitable wage payment due to discrimination e.g. caste, gender, color, etc.
There are two methods of job evaluation:
- Non-analytical System
- Analytical System
- Point Rating
- Factor Comparison
Key Differences Between Job Analysis and Job Evaluation
The following are the major differences between job analysis and job evaluation:
- The process in which an in-depth examination is performed to gather information about every minute detail about a particular job is known as Job Analysis. Job Evaluation is a process of determining the importance of a particular job in relation to the other job of the organization.
- Job Analysis is a comprehensive process while Job Evaluation is a comparative process.
- Job Analysis is done to prepare a job description and job specification. Conversely, Job Evaluation aims at implementing an equitable and justified wage system in an organization.
- Job Analysis is the first step to Job Evaluation.
- Job Analysis helps in Recruitment & Selection, Training & Development, Performance Appraisal, Compensation, etc. On the other hand, Job Analysis helps in ranking the jobs by comparing them on the basis of their importance.
Job Evaluation consists of a broad spectrum of activities which starts from Job Analysis. However, job analysis is a big process in itself. Complete scrutiny of jobs and their roles in the organization is done in both the processes. They are not contradictory in nature, but Job Analysis fulfills the requirements of Job Evaluation and helps in its successful performance.