With the help of job analysis, two main documents are prepared namely, job description and job specification. Job Description differs from job specification, in the sense that the former is a statement that explains the essential needs of a job whereas the latter is a statement which states the least qualifications, required in the job holder for the performance of a particular job.
These are an integral part of HRM because it is required for every single position of the organisation, whether it is a finance manager, HR manager, production manager, marketing manager or any other job of low echelon.
Job description list out the job title, tasks, duties, roles and responsibilities, with respect to the particular job. On the other hand, job specification is concerned with the listing of the incumbent’s qualification, skills, and abilities, that are needed to discharge the job efficiently. The article presents you significant differences between job description and job specification in tabular form.
Content: Job Description Vs Job Specification
|Basis for Comparison||Job Description||Job Specification|
|Meaning||Job Description is a concise written statement, explaining about what are the major requirements of a particular job.||The statement which explains the minimum eligibility requirements, for performing a particular job is known as Job Specification.|
|Lists out||Job title, duties, tasks and responsibilities involved in a job.||Employee's qualification, skills and abilities.|
|What is it?||It expresses what a prospective employee must do when he will get the placement||It expresses what an applicant must possess for getting selected.|
|Prepared from||Job Analysis||Job Description|
|Comprises of||Designation, place of work, scope, salary range, working hours, responsibilities, reporting authority etc.||Educational qualifications, experience, skills, knowledge, age, abilities, work orientation factors, etc.|
Definition of Job Description
A simple, organised and brief statement in written form, containing a list of all the essential requirements of the job, along with a summary of duties and responsibilities to be performed by the jobholder is known as Job Description. It is the immediate and the primary output of Job Analysis. In short, it is a statement that captures all the relevant facts related to a specific job.
Job description shows a clear picture of the nature of each job with respect to the tasks and occupational needs. It is an accurate and authorised record of job contents. It incorporates major authorities, duties, scope of work, role and purpose. It is a comprehensive job summary that all the necessary details are extensively curtailed in a concise way. It defines the primary and secondary conditions required for the performance of the concerned job.
It is easy with the help of the job description to legitimise rewards and punishments if the applicants do not satisfy the job requirements. Moreover, it is also easy to identify the training needs of the job holder.
Definition of Job Specification
A statement that expresses the minimum qualification and qualities required, for the performance of a particular job is known as Job Specification. It is also termed as Man Specification or Person Specification or Employee Specification.
Job Specification is prepared on the basis of Job Description, which states the characteristics that an employee should have, to hold the job. It converts the job description in terms of pertinent human qualifications which are demanded by the job. It is developed in consultation with the supervisor and the human resource manager.
The creation of job specification is not an easy task because sometimes it seems difficult to classify that whether a particular requirement is compulsory or desirable. However, it helps to ascertain that, on what basis a person is recruited and examined. Some common specifications are as under:
- Physical features: Height, weight, vision, etc.
- Demographic features: Age, experience, gender, education, skills, abilities, etc.
- Psychological features: Mental ability, alertness, sharpness, aptitude, reasoning, etc.
- Personal features: Attitude, behavior, etiquette, manners etc.
Key Differences Between Job Description and Job Specification
The difference between job description and job specification can be drawn clearly on the following grounds:
- Job Description is a descriptive statement that describes the role, responsibility, duties, and scope of a particular job. Job Specification states the minimum qualifications required for performing a particular job.
- Job Description is the outcome of Job Analysis while Job specification is the result of Job Description.
- Job Description describes jobs, but Job Specification describes job holders.
- The job description is a summary of what an employee will do after getting selected. Conversely, Job Specification is a statement showing what a person must possess for getting selected.
- Job Description contains designation, place of work, scope, working hours, responsibilities, reporting authority, salary range, etc. On the other hand, Job Specification contains educational qualifications, experience, skills, knowledge, age, abilities, work orientation factors, etc.
Recruitment is a very difficult task, as it involves a chain of activities. The first step for it is job analysis, which is conducted by employing various methods like surveys, questionnaires, interviews, etc. After that, a statement is prepared what a particular job demand and that statement are known as Job Description and this statement is the mirror of Job Analysis.
With the help of Job Description, Job Specification is created, which specifies the precise human requirements of the Job, through which an advertisement can be placed for such recruitment and on the basis of Job Specification selection of the candidate is possible.