CID stands for Crime Investigation Department, which comes under state police and has limited powers. On the other hand, CBI, i.e. Central Bureau of Investigation is a central level specialized investigation agency set up for the purpose of detection and examination of crime across the country.
Nowadays, from every nook and corner of the country, we hear crime news related to murders, rape, robbery, corruption, scandals, dowry death, cybercrime, honour killing, mob lynching, road accidents, molestation, kidnapping, abduction etc. So to control these activities and also to find out the real culprit, the government set up various agencies on the state and central level to investigate thoroughly and solve the case.
In this written material, you will get to know the differences between CID and CBI.
Content: CID Vs CBI
|Basis for Comparison||Crime Investigation Department (CID)||Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI)|
|Meaning||CID is a department of the Indian state police, that investigates the offences committed within the state.||CBI is an investigating agency of the Central Government, which investigates the offences concerned with national or international interest.|
|Established in||1902 by the British Government on the recommendation of the Police Commission.||1941 as a Special Police Establishment (SPE)|
|Area of Operation||Concerned Jurisdiction, i.e. state only.||All over the country and in abroad.|
|Cases||Handed over by the State government and High court.||Handed over by the Central Government, Supreme Court and High Court.|
|How to join the agency?||The two ways to join CID are - the candidate can either join the state police force, and based on the service record, he/she can be promoted to the concerned department, or they can qualify Civil Services examination undertaken by UPSC.||After graduation, the candidate has to qualify Civil Services Examination, and become an IPS officer, to become a group A officer in CBI. Moreover, to become a Sub-Inspector in CBI, one must pass the SSC CGL examination.|
|Deals with||Sensitive, and complicated cases.||Corruption cases, Economic cases, special cases and other cases.|
Definition of Crime Investigation Department (CID)
Crime Investigation Department (CID) is the statewide supreme investigation agency that deals with the supervision and control of the criminal offences, that take place within the respective state. It is headed by an officer, typically not lower than the rank of Deputy Inspector General (DIG) of police.
CID assumes investigation of heinous, complicated, thrilling cases, including cybercrimes, which are delegated by the State Government, Hon’ble High Court, Human Rights Commission of the State, National Human Rights Commission, Lokpal etc.
Branches of CID
Different states in India have different branches of CID. However, the most common ones are given hereunder:
- Finger Print Bureau
- Anti-Narcotics Cell
- Anti-Human Trafficking & Missing Persons Cell
- Anti-Terrorism Squad
- Handwriting and Photographic Bureau
- Dog Squad
Establishment of CID
In the year 1902-03, On the recommendation of the Indian Police Commission regarding the formation of the Crime Investigation Department (CID) in each state, the Government of India ordered to set up the concerned department in every state by the year 1907.
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Definition of Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI)
Central Bureau of Investigation, popularly known as CBI is an apex investigating body, that operates in India.
The roots of CBI is Special Police Establishment (SPE) which is instituted under Delhi Special Police Establishment Act, 1946. And, with the passage of time, it has been developed into a present-day organization, having widened roles and responsibilities.
Points to Remember
- The power to investigate is obtained from Delhi Special Police Establishment Act (DSPE), 1946.
- The agency was established in 1941 and was named the Central Bureau of Investigation in April 1963.
- Its headquarters are based in New Delhi and it works under the Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions, Government of India.
The central government authorizes to investigate cases in the state with the consent of the state government. However, the Supreme Court and the High Court can order CBI to investigate the criminal case in any state of the country, without the consent of the state government.
Establishment of CBI
The evolution of CBI over the years is discussed hereunder:
|1953||Addition of Enforcement Wing to SPE|
|1963||Authorization to investigate offences covered under various sections of Indian Penal Code (IPC) and 16 other acts, along with the offences covered under Prevention of Corruption Act, 1947|
|April 1963||CBI was set up by the Government of India, through a resolution.|
|Originally, it was established with the following divisions like Investigation & Anti Corruption Division (Delhi Special Police Establishment), Technical Division, Crime Records and Statistics Division, Research Division, Legal and General Division and Administration Division|
|April 1964||Addition of Economic Offences Wing through a resolution passed by Government of India|
|September 1964||Formation of Food Offences Wing (In the year 1968, it was merged with Economic Offences wing)|
|1987||Decision to create two separate divisions - Anti Corruption Division and Special Crimes Division|
|1991||Special Investigation Team (SIT) was formed|
|1992||Special Investigation Cell - IV was made|
|1993||Special Task force was formed|
|1994||Separate Economic Offences Wing was created|
Divisions of CBI
At present, the following are the major divisions of CBI:
- Anti Corruption Division
- Economic Offences Division
- Special Crimes Division
- Directorate of Prosecution
- Administration Division
- Policy and Coordination Division
- Central Forensic and Science Laboratory
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Key Differences Between CID and CBI
As we have gone through the basic introduction of the two intelligence and investigation agencies of India, let us move further to understand the difference between CID and CBI:
- CID expands to Crime Investigation Department. It is that department of the state police which deals with the investigation of criminal offences committed within the state. On the contrary, CBI is a central level investigation department that detects the offences committed across the country.
- While CID is established in 1902 by the British Government, as recommended by the Police Commission. Conversely, in the year 1941 CBI was set up as Special Police Establishment, under DSPE, Act.
- When it comes to the area of operation, CID operates within the state only. As against, CBI can investigate and solve cases of national and international level.
- CID takes up the cases directed by the State government and High court. Conversely, CBI takes charge of the cases directed by the Central Government, Supreme Court and High Court.
- To join CID, there are two ways, i.e. the candidate can either join the state police force and on the basis of their service record, he/she can be promoted or transferred to the concerned department, provided the candidate has two years experience as a uniformed officer. Secondly, the candidate qualifies Civil Services Examination conducted by UPSC every year, previously this exam is conducted by SSC. On the contrary, after graduation, the candidate has to qualify Civil Services Examination, and become an IPS officer, to join CBI as a group A officer. Moreover, to become a Sub-Inspector in CBI, one must pass SSC CGL Tier – 1 and Tier 2 examination.
- CID deals with Sensitive and complicated cases, such as murder, riot, counterfeiting, forgery, smuggling, kidnapping, theft, etc. In contrast, CBI deals with cases corruption cases, Economic cases, special cases and other cases.
Both CID and CBI are intelligence and investigation agencies, whose work is to detect and examine criminal offences. The cases are handed over by the Government or the Hon’ble High Court. Further, both are a part of the Police. Also, special training is given to the officers of the department.
Functions of CID
The functions performed by Crime Investigation Department are discussed as under:
- Obtaining and disseminating information related to professional cases and classes of crimes like dacoity, robbery at highway or railway, Counterfeiting coins or stamps, forgery of notes, drugging or poisoning by professional poisoners, swindling, murders for gain, economic offences, human trafficking and so forth
- Controlling advising and assisting as per the need of the circumstances, in the inquiry or investigation of offences stated above.
- Making inquiries related to forgery of telegraphic or railway receipts, frauds relating to postal departments and movement of foreign criminals, which requires the support of the investigation department.
- Establishment of the specialised squad, for investigating the cases.
Functions of CBI
Main functions performed by the Central Bureau of Investigation are given as under:
- Investigation of cases relating to corruption, misconduct, bribery and fraud committed by employees of Central Government Departments, PSU’s and Central Financial Institution.
- Investigation of cases concerned with the violation of economic and fiscal laws of the country like income tax laws, foreign exchange laws, customs and central excise, bank laws, etc.
- Investigation of special crimes like terrorism, bomb blasts, sensational murders, underworld crimes, kidnapping or abduction, etc.
- Investigation of heinous crimes, that bear national or international consequences, undertaken by a group of professional criminals.
- Facilitating coordination of activities of anti-corruption departments and state police force.
- Assuming any criminal case of public influence for the purpose of investigation, as requested by the state government.
- Maintaining the record of crime and communicating criminal information.
Though both CID and CBI are intelligence and investigation agencies, operating at state and central level respectively, CBI has an upper hand over CID, for the investigation of grave and complicated cases, especially the ones involving powerful people, such as Ministers, Politicians, Celebrities, Cricketers, or any other public figure, with many followers.